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Transformer Lightning Protection Technology

Transformers are indispensable equipment in power transmission systems, transforming high-voltage electrical energy into low-voltage electrical energy for consumer use. However, due to their frequent exposure to outdoor environments and susceptibility to lightning strikes, effective lightning protection technology for transformers is crucial to ensure their safe and stable operation.

Firstly, the lightning protection technology for transformers encompasses external and internal lightning protection measures.

External Lightning Protection Technology

(1) Installation of Surge Arresters

Surge arresters are typically installed on transformers' incoming and outgoing sides to absorb and discharge lightning-induced overvoltages, safeguarding transformers from lightning strikes. Surge arresters come in various types, such as withstand voltage surge arresters and intermediate surge arresters, selected based on factors including transformer-rated voltage, lightning frequency, and the region's lightning activity level.

(2) Installation of Lightning Protection Devices

In addition to surge arresters, lightning protection devices like grounding grids and rods can be installed around transformers. Lightning grounding grids divert lightning strikes underground, preventing direct impacts on transformers, while lightning rods, equipped with sharp conductors, attract lightning strikes, mitigating damage to transformers.

(3) Enhancement of Grounding Systems

Effective grounding systems can efficiently divert lightning strikes underground, reducing their impact on transformers. Therefore, establishing a robust grounding system around transformers is crucial. Grounding grids and grounding electrodes are commonly used structures to form effective grounding systems.

Internal Lightning Protection Technology

(1) Insulation Treatment

Insulation is one of the essential measures to protect electrical equipment from lightning impacts. Suitable insulation materials should be used for the internal insulation parts of transformers, maintaining good insulation conditions. Additionally, regular inspections of insulation conditions should be conducted to ensure their integrity.

(2) Use of Surge Arresters

Apart from external surge arresters, surge arresters can also be installed internally within transformers to absorb and discharge lightning-induced overvoltages from transmission lines. Typically, surge arresters are installed on both transformers' high-voltage and low-voltage sides.

(3) Proper Arrangement of Electrical Equipment

When arranging electrical equipment inside transformers, consideration should be given to lightning impacts. For instance, reasonable spacing between high-voltage and low-voltage windings should be maintained to avoid arcing and discharges. Furthermore, adequate clearances between windings and ground should be ensured to prevent excessive voltages.

In summary, lightning protection technology for transformers involves both external and internal measures, incorporating surge arresters, lightning protection devices, grounding systems, insulation treatment, and proper arrangement of electrical equipment. Transformers can operate safely and stably through rational design, layout, and regular maintenance and inspections, mitigating damage from lightning strikes.


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